I. M. MOKHOVA
Candidate of Political Sciences
Lebanon Keywords:, political parties, confessionalism
Lebanon is a very special State in many ways. Its uniqueness lies in the fact that it is the only Arab country in which 18 religious communities (12 Christian, 5 Muslim and 1 Jewish) are officially recognized. The political system is based on the proportional representation of recognized religious communities, with the exception of Jewish ones, in state authorities (which is called political confessionalism). The post of president is reserved for a Maronite Christian*, the prime minister-for a Sunni Muslim, and the chairman of the Parliament - for a Shiite Muslim. The State is a parliamentary democracy; political parties based primarily on religious and territorial principles participate freely in the political life of the country.
Despite the seemingly orderly and traditional relations between communities, Lebanon is living in a state of constant political crisis, which has already become an integral part of its political culture.
The current stage of the crisis is connected with the confrontation of two powerful political alliances. On the one hand, the so-called pro-Western majority 2, the core of which is the Sunni Future Movement led by Saad Hariri, supported primarily by the United States and France, as well as Saudi Arabia and Egypt. The coalition is opposed by a pro-Syrian and pro-Iranian minority, centered on the Shiite Hezbollah movement and its leader, Hassan Nasrallah.
Both coalitions represent a wide range of political parties. The main partners of the Future Movement, united in the "March , are two "historical" Christian Maronite parties-Samir Jaj's Lebanese Forces and Amin Gemayel's Kataib, the largest Druze party** - the Progressive Socialist Party led by Walid Jumblat, the National Liberal Party of the Maronite Shamoun clan, and the Sunni bloc Tripoli, as well as the Sunni Islamist party "Jama'a Islamiyya".
The main political allies of Hezbollah, whic ... Read more